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#ID description nonmember price USD$
#CPF-2012-SLWL-1 Diaphragm Walls as Permanent Basement Walls in Regions of High Seismicity
DFI Slurry Walls CommitteeCharles B. Grant, P.E., S.E., Dominic J. Kelly, P.E., S.E., Michael P. Walker, P.E.
PDF 20 pages, illustrated

Reinforced concrete structural slurry walls have been used in the United States since the early 1960s. The typical practice, and one that makes the economics of slurry walls particularly attractive, is to design the walls to act as both temporary excavation support and permanent basement walls. They often serve as multi-story basements and below grade parking for buildings, for tunnels, subway stations, and other buried structures. One of the early applications was for a foundation for a subway station in San Francisco, but for the most part they have been used more extensively in regions of low seismicity. The purpose of this report is to investigate the requirements for extension of this practice to more common use in regions of high seismicity.

#CPF-2015-DRSH-1 Guide to Tremie Concrete For Deep Foundations, 2nd Edition
EFFC and DFI Concrete Task Group
PDF, 83 pages, Illustrated

The primary purpose of this report is to provide guidance for characterization related to performance, mix design process, and methods used to test fresh concrete. The principles of this guide apply to tremie concrete for deep foundations but may also be applied for other forms of deep foundations (e.g., continuous flight auger piling). The guide addresses design considerations including concrete rheology, mix design, reinforcement detailing, concrete cover, and good practice rules for placement. A review of methods to test the as-built elements is presented together with advice on the identification and interpretation of the results.

#CPF-2015-DRSH-2 Research Report: Rheology and Workability Testing of Deep Foundation Concrete in Europe and the US
EFFC and DFI Concrete Task Group
PDF, 48 pages, Illustrated

A companion research report to the DFI/EFFC Guide to Tremie Concrete for Deep Foundations (2nd Edition) which provides information on the research incorporated in the guide that numerically models the behaviour of concrete when it is poured into an excavation. This is a new area of research which provides new insight into what is occurring during the tremie operation.

#CPF-2015-LAND-1 Effect of Coupling on A-Walls for Slope Stabilization
DFI Landslides and Slope Stabilization CommitteeAndrew Boeckmann, J. Erik Loehr, Helen Robinson, Minh Uong, and Jesús Gómez
PDF 38 pages, Illustrated

A-Walls have been used successfully for slope stabilization. Methods are developed for predicting the resisting forces in A-Walls for slope stabilization based on results of full-scale field installations of A-Walls, and experimental results involving scaled micropile elements installed in large-scale physical models. This is a significant development since the method satisfies compatibility between mobilization of axial and lateral load transfer, which have been observed to mobilize at substantially different rates. Although the method satisfies compatibility, it does so with uncoupled (i.e., separate) lateral and axial analyses, without consideration of interaction between upslope and downslope micropiles (which are connected through a capping beam). This potentially produces errors in predictions of reinforcement forces, which in turn could have a notable effect on slope stability. To evaluate the effect of coupling, the research team analyzed slopes stabilized with A-Walls using a finite element model with upslope and downslope piles connected at the pile head. This report includes design implications resulting from the coupling effect and recommendations for further research.

DFI Seismic and Lateral Loads CommitteeJonathan Nasr and Arash Khosravifar, Ph.D., P.E.
PDF 101 pages, Illustrated

Effective-stress nonlinear dynamic analyses (NDA) were performed for piles in liquefiable sloped ground to assess how inertia and liquefaction-induced lateral spreading combine in long-duration vs. short-duration earthquakes. A parametric study was performed using input motions from subduction and crustal earthquakes covering a wide range of earthquake durations. The NDA results were used to evaluate the accuracy of the equivalent static analysis (ESA) recommended by Caltrans/ODOT for estimating pile demands. Finally, the NDA results were used to develop new ESA methods to combine inertial and lateral spreading loads for estimating elastic and inelastic pile demands.

#CPF-2014-SLMX-1 Influences of Mixture Proportions and Test Conditions on the Strength and Stiffness of Wet-Mixed Soil and Cement
DFI Soil Mixing CommitteeRoberto Nevárez-Garibaldi, Dale Miller, and George Filz, Virginia Tech
PDF, 405 pages, Illustrated

Establishing a suitable mix design is important to provide the engineering property values necessary for adequate performance of a deep mixing support system. The mix design process often includes a laboratory mixing program to identify suitable binder types and appropriate mixture proportions. The objectives of this research were to investigate: (1) the influences of laboratory procedures and test conditions on measured property values of cement-treated soil, (2) relationships between engineering property values, such as the relationship between unconfined compressive strength and Young's modulus, and (3) the influence of mix design proportions on cured strength and on mixture consistency immediately after mixing.

#CPF-2016-ACIP-1 ACIP Pile Installation, Installation Monitoring, Full-scale Load Testing, and Extraction Program
DFI Augered Cast-In-Place Pile CommitteeDr. Antonio Marinucci, MBA, P.E. and W. Morgan NeSmith, Jr., P.E.
PDF, 138 pages, Illustrated

DFI’s Augered Cast-In-Place (ACIP) Pile Committee performed a foundation installation, monitoring, performance and extraction program for ACIP piles in the fall of 2016. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate a fully monitored installation of instrumented 18-in (457 mm) and 24-in (610 mm) diameter ACIP piles, including automated monitoring equipment (AME); post-installation thermal integrity profiling (TIP) measurements; compression, tension, and lateral load testing (including monitoring of strain gages embedded along the compression pile shaft); and post-testing extraction of an installed pile for visual inspection.

#CPF-2012-DRSH-1 Comparison of Bored Pile/Drilled Shaft Practices between Europe & North America
DFI Drilled Shafts CommitteeAlan Macnab, P.Eng, D.GE
PDF, 41 pages (4 Journal Papers)

Four manuscripts describe a comprehensive comparison study between drilled shaft/bored pile practice in Europe and North America (i.e., US and Canada) focusing on the design, construction, contracting, quality control and implementation of recent technologies into the deep foundation industry. The material was presented at conference sessions of the 2014 DFI Annual Conference on Deep Foundations in Atlanta, Georgia, and the 2015 International Foundations Congress and Equipment Expo (IFCEE) in San Antonio, Texas. The presentations, lessons learned and discussions that followed are documented. For the purpose of this study the project team members (i.e. authors of the subsequent papers) were paired by geographic location, i.e., US team members collaborated with European team members to provide a detailed synopsis of the respective study topic. Conclusions drawn from the study were supported by data from a comprehensive project survey conducted on both continents. Brown, Wulleman and Bottiau present a comparison of design practice and recognize that while common trends in the design of deep foundations exist, local practice dictates much of the implementation. In addition thereto, differences in construction techniques (e.g., drilling fluids, reinforcement details, base cleaning) have an impact on the early design stages before construction starts. Marinucci and Jue follow up by investigating differences in construction methodology and note that in Europe, bored pile practice typically follows performance-based methodology and specifications, whereas, in North America, traditional prescriptive-based methodology and specifications are more widely used. In addition differences with respect to casing, usage of drilling fluid and safety requirements dictate the deep foundation construction. Coleman and Tipter explore the contracting methods, document forms, payment methods, contracting provisions, and regional influences in North America and Europe. Given the multitude of contract forms and the involvement of specialty contractors (and the legal responsibilities thereof) the concept of a “team approach” emerged among all comparisons, which would allow for more innovations, reduction of risk and a better methodology of risk sharing among all parties. Hertlein, Verbeek, Fassett and Arnold explore the current state of construction technologies and how some of those techniques are implemented in the quality management (QM) and quality assurance (QA) of drilled shafts. Recent technological developments including their integration in Europe and North America are discussed. In addition a review of QA approaches on both continents is provided along with code standards and guidance documents for each. Selected methodologies within the non-destructive and destructive range are explored and described in further detail. DFI Members can access the article by logging into myDFI and choosing view Journal Issues for the DFI Journal Vol 10, Issue 2, December 2016. Non-Members can Click Here to subscribe.

#CPF-2013-HLPR-1 Industry Survey of State of Practice for Helical Piles and Tiebacks
DFI Helical Piles and Tiebacks CommitteeDrs. S.P. Clemence (Syracuse University) and A.J. Lutenegger (University of Massachusetts Amherst)
PDF, 21 pages, illustrated

The last 25 years have seen exponential growth in the use of helical piles and tiebacks. Helical piles and tiebacks are now considered a standard of practice in the deep foundation industry. With the dramatic growth of this technology and the proliferation of available technical information, a synthesis paper on the current state of the practice was considered a valuable addition to the literature as a way to quantify and summarize the current state-of-practice. Based on the increased interest and global applications of helical foundations, in 2013 the Helical Piles and Tiebacks Committee (HPTC) commissioned a state-of-practice survey of current practices in the use, design and installation of helical piles and tiebacks. The major goals of the survey were to understand the current status of applications of helical piles and tiebacks, their design and construction, quantify perceived needs and to identify future trends. The results for the present survey are very encouraging and have clearly demonstrated that there is a cadre of engineers and manufacturers dedicated to continued improvement and understanding of helical foundation systems. Continued work and education of design engineers, architects, government agencies and owners will ensure continued success and progress. DFI Members can access the article by logging into myDFI and choosing view Journal Issues for the DFI Journal Vol 9, Issue 1, April 2015. Non-Members can Click Here to subscribe

#CPF-2013-SOIL-1 Evaluation of Elongation Criteria and Friction Loss in Ground Anchors
DFI Tiebacks and Soil Nailing CommitteeJohn P. Turner and Benjamin J. Turner, Dan Brown and Associates
PDF, 26 pages, illustrated

This report describes a research project for evaluating the applicability of the widely accepted 80 percent criterion for elongation of ground anchors to anchors with unbonded lengths exceeding 100 feet. This issue is driven by several recent projects involving ground anchors for landslide stabilization in which a significant percentage of the anchors did not meet the criterion that requires measured elongation during proof load testing of at least 80 percent of the theoretical elastic elongation. The projects involved anchor unbonded lengths in the range of 85 to 220 feet, which is outside the range traditionally used in practice although anchors of this length are being used more frequently for landslide stabilization. The principal objective of this research is to address whether the widely accepted criterion of 80- percent elongation is applicable for such applications, and whether other factors affect the ability of anchors to meet the criterion.

#CPF-2012-GRIM-1 Liquefaction Mitigation Synthesis Report
DFI Ground Improvement CommitteeTimothy C. Siegel PE, GE, D.GE, Dan Brown and Associates
PDF, 19 pages

This report presents the results of a synthesis on the design and analysis of ground improvement for liquefaction mitigation. The synthesis included an industry survey concerning the practice of ground improvement for liquefaction mitigation. Participation in the survey was solicited by advertisements in several trade magazines and by e-mail for the DFI membership. The survey participants numbered 150. Their professional roles include consulting engineers, specialty contractors, design engineers, government engineers, and academicians. They represent a variety of geographical areas including North/Central/South America, United Kingdom, Middle East, Caribbean, Hawaii, Japan, India, Egypt, France, Australia and New Zealand. Upon completion of the survey, several professionals in the field of liquefaction and ground improvement were interviewed for them to elaborate on the survey results. The interviews are included in the Appendix of this report. Financial report for the project was provided by DFI and Dan Brown and Associates PC. DFI Members can access the article by logging into myDFI and choosing view Journal Issues for the DFI Journal Vol 7, Issue 1, August 2013. Non-Members can Click Here to subscribe

#CPF-2012-LAND-1 Analysis of Landslides and Slopes Stabilized Using One Row of Piles
DFI Deep Foundations for Landslides and Slope Stabilization CommitteeHamed Ardalan and Dr. Mohamed Ashour, The University of Alabama in Huntsville table of contents
PDF, 128 pages, illustrated

The presented research work had a primary goal of developing a reliable and representative design method that accounts for the effect of the soil and pile properties and pile spacing on the performance of pile-stabilized slopes based on the soil-pile-interaction. The proposed design approach was also compiled into a computer program for the analysis of pile-stabilized slopes. The strain wedge (SW) model technique developed by Norris (1986), Ashour et al. (1998), and Ashour and Ardalan (2012-1) for laterally loaded piles (long, intermediate, and short piles) based on the soil-structure interaction was modified to analyze the behavior of piles used to improve slope stability. The computer software (PSSLOPE-M), which was written in Visual Basic and FORTRAN, was developed to implement the presented technique for pile-stabilized slopes, including the slope stability analysis (with no piles) using the Modified Bishop Method. The computer software is available from the researcher, Dr. Mohamed Ashour at ashouruah@gmail.com. Click Here to download copy of project report

DFI Seismic and Lateral Loads and Drilled Shaft Committees and ADSC Drilled Shaft CommitteeProf. Anne Lemnitzer (Prinicpal Investigator), University of California Irvine

FindAPile.com was created with the purpose of developing a catalogue that documents studies of pile foundations under lateral loading to assist geotechnical engineers, researchers and contractors in their design selection, numerical modeling, literature reviews, research assignments and construction selections. Pile foundations, in particular drilled shafts, are one of the most common foundation systems used in engineering practice. Their versatility in application (off-shore, ports, bridges, buildings) and its resourcefulness in terms of engineering analysis and design (vertical and lateral loading capacities) make it a foundation preference in the United States. The direct use of large scale pile test results has become a design practice (performance based design) to create safer and more economical foundation systems. Large scale pile tests also provide a more realistic understanding of foundation behavior in specific boundary conditions, soil types and enable the engineer to conduct a much more advanced design approach. The mission of the research team is to create a resource for practicing engineers to help guide and advance the pile analyses through an extensive literature review and development of an online database of previous large scale pile experiments. Click Here to go to Find A Pile.com

#CPF-2012-SSTN-1 EFFC-DFI Carbon Calculator
DFI Sustainability CommitteeEuropean Federation of Foundation Contractors (EFFC) and Deep Foundations Institute (DFI)
Downloadable Excel Tool

The EFFC and DFI have created a tool that will calculate the CO2 emissions of foundation and geotechnical works. It is designed to allow contractors and commissioning organizations alike to assess the carbon footprint of their projects. The Foundation CO2 Calculator has been developed using verifiable, standardized data to enable accurate benchmarking of competing project proposals. Prior to its development there existed no single standardized tool for calculating CO2 emissions for these types of ground works. The tool also allows contractors to compare and contrast different technical approaches within the same project and see what the CO2 emissions will be. Furthermore it can be used throughout a project's development to compare how it performed against expectations. Click Here to Download the Tool