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#ID description nonmember price USD$
#TM-POSTGROUT Final Report: Workshop on Quality Assurance for Post-Grouted Drilled Shafts
FHWA, Caltrans, DFI, ADSCMary Ellen Bruce Large, P.E., D.GE, DFI Technical Activities Manager table of contents
PDF, 45 pgs., illustrated

In partnership with California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), and with support from International Association of Foundation Drilling (ADSC), Deep Foundations Institute (DFI) organized a workshop on quality assurance (QA) practices for acceptance of post-grouted drilled shafts in conjunction with DFI’s 40th Annual Conference on Deep Foundations. The one and a half day workshop was held on October 15-16, 2015 at the Oakland Marriott City Center in Oakland, CA. Post-grouting, in the context of this workshop and report, refers to the alternative design and construction of base-grouted drilled shafts wherein a grout distribution system is installed during construction and used to grout the base under pressure after the drilled shaft concrete has gained adequate strength, resulting in a stiffer axial-compression load-displacement relationship and additional possible ground improvement effects. The primary goals of the workshop were to • Identify and summarize the state of the practice for design, construction, inspection, verification, acceptance criteria, reliability and performance of post-grouting. • Identify gaps and needs in quality assurance that should be addressed for successful use of post-grouting. This report is structured to follow the workshop program: workshop presentations outlined the state of practice and views from owners, engineers and contractors on acceptance of post grouting methods for drilled shafts; and subsequent workshop discussions attended by a small invited group of participants focused on identifying areas of agreement and disagreement on post-grouting best practices, acceptance criteria, design and verification procedures, and inspection requirements. A partial list of attendees of the open and closed sessions is provided as Appendix A, and copies of presentations are included as Appendix B. FHWA and Caltrans are the primary audiences for this report, and its content will be used to develop a roadmap for deploying the findings into policy and practice. The secondary audience is the broader industry group, and the report content will be disseminated in a variety of formats.

#TM-WPSAFETY Recommended Industry Practices for Safe Working Platforms for Construction Equipment
DFI, ADSC, PDCAWorking Platforms Industry-Wide Working Group table of contents
36 pgs, illustrated, PDF

The purpose of the document is to present an administrative procedure to institutionalize a clear method for ensuring that safe Working Platforms are in place for foundation construction equipment. This document also serves as a suggested framework by which allocation of responsibility can be communicated and determined long before work is performed on the jobsite.

#OA-DFJV14N1 Theoretical “t-z” Curves for Piles in Radially Inhomogeneous Soil
DFIEDITORS:: Anne Lemnitzer, Ph.D., P.E.; Timothy C. Siegel, P.E., G.E., D.GE AUTHORS: Abigail H. Bateman; Jamie J. Crispin
9 pgs, PDF

Accurate estimates of pile settlement are key for efficient design of axially loaded piles. Calculations of pile settlement can be simplified using one-dimensional “t-z” curves describing pile settlement at a certain depth as a function of side friction. In the realm of this simplified framework, theoretical “t-z” curves can be derived by substituting an attenuation function describing the variation of shear stress with distance from the pile, into a soil constitutive model relating shear strain to shear stress, then integrating with respect to distance to get the settlement at the pile circumference due to an applied shear stress. A handful of analytical “t-z” curves are available in the literature using the concentric cylinder model to define an attenuation function; these include solutions for linear-elastic, power-law and hyperbolic constitutive models. However, radially homogeneous soil has often been assumed, ignoring the effect of the pile installation resulting in unconservative calculations of pile settlement. This paper considers the installation of the pile, resulting in a radially variable shear modulus distribution in the surrounding soil. A radial inhomogeneity correction factor has been developed for selected constitutive models based on two simplified functions for the soil inhomogeneity, which can be applied to the previously derived “t-z” curves produced assuming radially homogeneous soil. The performance of this simplified method is investigated.

#TM-PLATFORMS Guide to Working Platforms
EFFC and DFIEFFC/DFI Working Platforms Task Group table of contents
PDF; 175 pages; illustrated

On a typical construction site, the provision of a safe surface to work on involves and affects a number of the contracting parties (the client; principal designer; general contractor; specialty contractor; platform designer; platform installer or earthworks contractor; platform tester and platform maintainer), and as a consequence, the organisation of its design, installation and maintenance can be complex. As it concerns money and liability it is often a contentious issue, but nonetheless one that needs to be addressed. This document takes each step in turn and describes what good practice is, with reference to documents and resources that have been made available through the EFFC and DFI. In compiling this information responses have been collated from foundation contractors from; France, United Kingdom, the Czech Republic, Germany, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sweden, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Hungary, Italy and Sweden, USA and Canada.

#WP-CSL-2019 Terminology and Evaluation Criteria of Crosshole Sonic Logging (CSL) as applied to Deep Foundations
DFICSL Task Force of DFI Codes and Standards, Drilled Shafts and Testing and Evaluation Committee Members
PDF, 17 pages, illustrated

Nondestructive testing of drilled shaft foundations via Crosshole Sonic Logging (CSL) is often performed as part of the quality assurance process to assess the soundness of concrete. The intent of CSL testing is to identify irregularities such as soil intrusion, necking, soft bottom, segregation, voids and other defects that could result in poor structural performance of the foundation. Over time, CSL rating criteria based on first arrival time and relative energy have incorrectly evolved to often be the sole means of determining the acceptability of a shaft. Some of these criteria have found their way into regulatory agency specifications, with acceptance values often differing from agency to agency.

The purpose of this document is to review the state of the practice (including experience gained over the past 20 years), propose improved CSL rating criteria and make recommendations for additional assessment, as well as educate the industry on the proper interpretation of CSL test. CSL test results alone should not be the sole means of rejecting or accepting a shaft.

#TM-SUPPORTFLUIDS Guide to Support Fluids for Deep Foundations, First Edition
EFFC and DFIEFFC/DFI Support Fluids Task Group
PDF; 88 pages; illustrated

This guide represents the state of the art of support fluid practice and aims to improve existing design, testing and practices for deep foundation elements – bored piles (drilled shafts), barrettes (LBEs) and diaphragm wall panels. It represents the first time that knowledge of good practice from around the world has been brought together into a single authoritative publication. The purpose of this Guide is to present current understanding on bentonite, other clays, polymers and blended systems, including the advantages and limitations, in order to allow informed selection of the optimum technical solution(s) for the conditions on each individual worksite. This Guide does not recommend any particular type of support fluid as each worksite has specific characteristics and requirements.This Guide will assist individuals and corporations involved in the procurement, design, and construction of deep foundations including Owners/Clients, Designers, General Contractors, Academics and Specialist Contractors. It is intended as a practical addition to existing standards, not a substitute. Project Specifications, Standards and Codes should always take precedence. This first edition details accepted industry good practice and will be followed by a second edition based on a comprehensive R&D program which will carry out a series of field research studies. The studies will collect data from active project sites and develop and conduct non-standard tests in order to establish what testing methods have substantial value and to better understand the validity of the compliance values in use. The task group will then produce a second edition of the guide that promises to be the best authority on the use of support fluids in the industry. This is expected to be published in 2021.

#WP-PIMS-2018 Project Information Management Systems in the Deep Foundations Industry White Paper
DFI Project Information Management Systems (PIMS) CommitteeVanessa Bateman, Massimo Mucci, Mark Petersen, and Jamey Rosen
PDF, 8 pgs

This document provides a general introduction to the concepts and applications of a Project Information Management System (PIMS) to the geotechnical foundations industry. While geotechnical projects have always generated data and created related visualizations and analyses, in the past decade the industry has seen an increase in specifications and owner requirements for formal data management and associated project submissions. At the same time, new and adapted technologies are emerging (the nature and rate of adoption of these differ across regions and owners) that allow increased automation and greater digitalization and generation of data in increasing volumes. The PIMS Committee of Deep Foundations Institute (DFI) was formed to guide the industry in navigating these trends and provide tools to DFI members to maximize the benefits from information management. This document was written by the DFI PIMS committee to provide some non-technical guidance to the industry on these concepts.

#CPF-2012-SLWL-1 Diaphragm Walls as Permanent Basement Walls in Regions of High Seismicity
DFI Slurry Walls CommitteeCharles B. Grant, P.E., S.E., Dominic J. Kelly, P.E., S.E., Michael P. Walker, P.E.
PDF 20 pages, illustrated

Reinforced concrete structural slurry walls have been used in the United States since the early 1960s. The typical practice, and one that makes the economics of slurry walls particularly attractive, is to design the walls to act as both temporary excavation support and permanent basement walls. They often serve as multi-story basements and below grade parking for buildings, for tunnels, subway stations, and other buried structures. One of the early applications was for a foundation for a subway station in San Francisco, but for the most part they have been used more extensively in regions of low seismicity. The purpose of this report is to investigate the requirements for extension of this practice to more common use in regions of high seismicity.

#CPF-2015-DRSH-1 Guide to Tremie Concrete For Deep Foundations, 2nd Edition
EFFC and DFI Concrete Task Group
PDF, 83 pages, Illustrated

The primary purpose of this report is to provide guidance for characterization related to performance, mix design process, and methods used to test fresh concrete. The principles of this guide apply to tremie concrete for deep foundations but may also be applied for other forms of deep foundations (e.g., continuous flight auger piling). The guide addresses design considerations including concrete rheology, mix design, reinforcement detailing, concrete cover, and good practice rules for placement. A review of methods to test the as-built elements is presented together with advice on the identification and interpretation of the results.

#CPF-2015-DRSH-2 Research Report: Rheology and Workability Testing of Deep Foundation Concrete in Europe and the US
EFFC and DFI Concrete Task Group
PDF, 48 pages, Illustrated

A companion research report to the DFI/EFFC Guide to Tremie Concrete for Deep Foundations (2nd Edition) which provides information on the research incorporated in the guide that numerically models the behaviour of concrete when it is poured into an excavation. This is a new area of research which provides new insight into what is occurring during the tremie operation.

#CPF-2015-LAND-1 Effect of Coupling on A-Walls for Slope Stabilization
DFI Landslides and Slope Stabilization CommitteeAndrew Boeckmann, J. Erik Loehr, Helen Robinson, Minh Uong, and Jesús Gómez
PDF 38 pages, Illustrated

A-Walls have been used successfully for slope stabilization. Methods are developed for predicting the resisting forces in A-Walls for slope stabilization based on results of full-scale field installations of A-Walls, and experimental results involving scaled micropile elements installed in large-scale physical models. This is a significant development since the method satisfies compatibility between mobilization of axial and lateral load transfer, which have been observed to mobilize at substantially different rates. Although the method satisfies compatibility, it does so with uncoupled (i.e., separate) lateral and axial analyses, without consideration of interaction between upslope and downslope micropiles (which are connected through a capping beam). This potentially produces errors in predictions of reinforcement forces, which in turn could have a notable effect on slope stability. To evaluate the effect of coupling, the research team analyzed slopes stabilized with A-Walls using a finite element model with upslope and downslope piles connected at the pile head. This report includes design implications resulting from the coupling effect and recommendations for further research.

DFI Seismic and Lateral Loads CommitteeJonathan Nasr and Arash Khosravifar, Ph.D., P.E.
PDF 101 pages, Illustrated

Effective-stress nonlinear dynamic analyses (NDA) were performed for piles in liquefiable sloped ground to assess how inertia and liquefaction-induced lateral spreading combine in long-duration vs. short-duration earthquakes. A parametric study was performed using input motions from subduction and crustal earthquakes covering a wide range of earthquake durations. The NDA results were used to evaluate the accuracy of the equivalent static analysis (ESA) recommended by Caltrans/ODOT for estimating pile demands. Finally, the NDA results were used to develop new ESA methods to combine inertial and lateral spreading loads for estimating elastic and inelastic pile demands.

#CPF-2014-SLMX-1 Influences of Mixture Proportions and Test Conditions on the Strength and Stiffness of Wet-Mixed Soil and Cement
DFI Soil Mixing CommitteeRoberto Nevárez-Garibaldi, Dale Miller, and George Filz, Virginia Tech
PDF, 405 pages, Illustrated

Establishing a suitable mix design is important to provide the engineering property values necessary for adequate performance of a deep mixing support system. The mix design process often includes a laboratory mixing program to identify suitable binder types and appropriate mixture proportions. The objectives of this research were to investigate: (1) the influences of laboratory procedures and test conditions on measured property values of cement-treated soil, (2) relationships between engineering property values, such as the relationship between unconfined compressive strength and Young's modulus, and (3) the influence of mix design proportions on cured strength and on mixture consistency immediately after mixing.

#CPF-2016-ACIP-1 ACIP Pile Installation, Installation Monitoring, Full-scale Load Testing, and Extraction Program
DFI Augered Cast-In-Place Pile CommitteeDr. Antonio Marinucci, MBA, P.E. and W. Morgan NeSmith, Jr., P.E.
PDF, 138 pages, Illustrated

DFI’s Augered Cast-In-Place (ACIP) Pile Committee performed a foundation installation, monitoring, performance and extraction program for ACIP piles in the fall of 2016. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate a fully monitored installation of instrumented 18-in (457 mm) and 24-in (610 mm) diameter ACIP piles, including automated monitoring equipment (AME); post-installation thermal integrity profiling (TIP) measurements; compression, tension, and lateral load testing (including monitoring of strain gages embedded along the compression pile shaft); and post-testing extraction of an installed pile for visual inspection.

#CPF-2012-DRSH-1 Comparison of Bored Pile/Drilled Shaft Practices between Europe & North America
DFI Drilled Shafts CommitteeAlan Macnab, P.Eng, D.GE
PDF, 41 pages (4 Journal Papers)

Four manuscripts describe a comprehensive comparison study between drilled shaft/bored pile practice in Europe and North America (i.e., US and Canada) focusing on the design, construction, contracting, quality control and implementation of recent technologies into the deep foundation industry. The material was presented at conference sessions of the 2014 DFI Annual Conference on Deep Foundations in Atlanta, Georgia, and the 2015 International Foundations Congress and Equipment Expo (IFCEE) in San Antonio, Texas. The presentations, lessons learned and discussions that followed are documented. For the purpose of this study the project team members (i.e. authors of the subsequent papers) were paired by geographic location, i.e., US team members collaborated with European team members to provide a detailed synopsis of the respective study topic. Conclusions drawn from the study were supported by data from a comprehensive project survey conducted on both continents. Brown, Wulleman and Bottiau present a comparison of design practice and recognize that while common trends in the design of deep foundations exist, local practice dictates much of the implementation. In addition thereto, differences in construction techniques (e.g., drilling fluids, reinforcement details, base cleaning) have an impact on the early design stages before construction starts. Marinucci and Jue follow up by investigating differences in construction methodology and note that in Europe, bored pile practice typically follows performance-based methodology and specifications, whereas, in North America, traditional prescriptive-based methodology and specifications are more widely used. In addition differences with respect to casing, usage of drilling fluid and safety requirements dictate the deep foundation construction. Coleman and Tipter explore the contracting methods, document forms, payment methods, contracting provisions, and regional influences in North America and Europe. Given the multitude of contract forms and the involvement of specialty contractors (and the legal responsibilities thereof) the concept of a “team approach” emerged among all comparisons, which would allow for more innovations, reduction of risk and a better methodology of risk sharing among all parties. Hertlein, Verbeek, Fassett and Arnold explore the current state of construction technologies and how some of those techniques are implemented in the quality management (QM) and quality assurance (QA) of drilled shafts. Recent technological developments including their integration in Europe and North America are discussed. In addition a review of QA approaches on both continents is provided along with code standards and guidance documents for each. Selected methodologies within the non-destructive and destructive range are explored and described in further detail. DFI Members can access the article by logging into myDFI and choosing view Journal Issues for the DFI Journal Vol 10, Issue 2, December 2016. Non-Members can Click Here to subscribe.

#CPF-2013-HLPR-1 Industry Survey of State of Practice for Helical Piles and Tiebacks
DFI Helical Piles and Tiebacks CommitteeDrs. S.P. Clemence (Syracuse University) and A.J. Lutenegger (University of Massachusetts Amherst)
PDF, 21 pages, illustrated

The last 25 years have seen exponential growth in the use of helical piles and tiebacks. Helical piles and tiebacks are now considered a standard of practice in the deep foundation industry. With the dramatic growth of this technology and the proliferation of available technical information, a synthesis paper on the current state of the practice was considered a valuable addition to the literature as a way to quantify and summarize the current state-of-practice. Based on the increased interest and global applications of helical foundations, in 2013 the Helical Piles and Tiebacks Committee (HPTC) commissioned a state-of-practice survey of current practices in the use, design and installation of helical piles and tiebacks. The major goals of the survey were to understand the current status of applications of helical piles and tiebacks, their design and construction, quantify perceived needs and to identify future trends. The results for the present survey are very encouraging and have clearly demonstrated that there is a cadre of engineers and manufacturers dedicated to continued improvement and understanding of helical foundation systems. Continued work and education of design engineers, architects, government agencies and owners will ensure continued success and progress. DFI Members can access the article by logging into myDFI and choosing view Journal Issues for the DFI Journal Vol 9, Issue 1, April 2015. Non-Members can Click Here to subscribe

#CPF-2013-SOIL-1 Evaluation of Elongation Criteria and Friction Loss in Ground Anchors
DFI Tiebacks and Soil Nailing CommitteeJohn P. Turner and Benjamin J. Turner, Dan Brown and Associates
PDF, 26 pages, illustrated

This report describes a research project for evaluating the applicability of the widely accepted 80 percent criterion for elongation of ground anchors to anchors with unbonded lengths exceeding 100 feet. This issue is driven by several recent projects involving ground anchors for landslide stabilization in which a significant percentage of the anchors did not meet the criterion that requires measured elongation during proof load testing of at least 80 percent of the theoretical elastic elongation. The projects involved anchor unbonded lengths in the range of 85 to 220 feet, which is outside the range traditionally used in practice although anchors of this length are being used more frequently for landslide stabilization. The principal objective of this research is to address whether the widely accepted criterion of 80- percent elongation is applicable for such applications, and whether other factors affect the ability of anchors to meet the criterion.

#CPF-2012-GRIM-1 Liquefaction Mitigation Synthesis Report
DFI Ground Improvement CommitteeTimothy C. Siegel PE, GE, D.GE, Dan Brown and Associates
PDF, 19 pages

This report presents the results of a synthesis on the design and analysis of ground improvement for liquefaction mitigation. The synthesis included an industry survey concerning the practice of ground improvement for liquefaction mitigation. Participation in the survey was solicited by advertisements in several trade magazines and by e-mail for the DFI membership. The survey participants numbered 150. Their professional roles include consulting engineers, specialty contractors, design engineers, government engineers, and academicians. They represent a variety of geographical areas including North/Central/South America, United Kingdom, Middle East, Caribbean, Hawaii, Japan, India, Egypt, France, Australia and New Zealand. Upon completion of the survey, several professionals in the field of liquefaction and ground improvement were interviewed for them to elaborate on the survey results. The interviews are included in the Appendix of this report. Financial report for the project was provided by DFI and Dan Brown and Associates PC. DFI Members can access the article by logging into myDFI and choosing view Journal Issues for the DFI Journal Vol 7, Issue 1, August 2013. Non-Members can Click Here to subscribe

DFI Seismic and Lateral Loads and Drilled Shaft Committees and ADSC Drilled Shaft CommitteeProf. Anne Lemnitzer (Prinicpal Investigator), University of California Irvine

FindAPile.com was created with the purpose of developing a catalogue that documents studies of pile foundations under lateral loading to assist geotechnical engineers, researchers and contractors in their design selection, numerical modeling, literature reviews, research assignments and construction selections. Pile foundations, in particular drilled shafts, are one of the most common foundation systems used in engineering practice. Their versatility in application (off-shore, ports, bridges, buildings) and its resourcefulness in terms of engineering analysis and design (vertical and lateral loading capacities) make it a foundation preference in the United States. The direct use of large scale pile test results has become a design practice (performance based design) to create safer and more economical foundation systems. Large scale pile tests also provide a more realistic understanding of foundation behavior in specific boundary conditions, soil types and enable the engineer to conduct a much more advanced design approach. The mission of the research team is to create a resource for practicing engineers to help guide and advance the pile analyses through an extensive literature review and development of an online database of previous large scale pile experiments. Click Here to go to Find A Pile.com

#MRNE-2009 Deep Marine Foundations - A Perspective on the Design and Construction of Deep Marine Foundations
Marine Foundations Committee 2002-2008Robert B. Bittner, Committee Chair and Editor; Roderic A. Ellman Jr., Editor table of contents
Hard case bound, 390 pgs., color illustrations, 7"x10" section sewn

This assembled volume was compiled from papers presented at past DFI Marine Foundations Specialty Seminars and other relevant papers on deep marine foundations for easy reference for designers, constructors, and suppliers to our industry. Hopefully this volume will assist designers and contractors in optimizing the efficiency of their deep marine foundations. The book contains 40 papers covering a wide range of relevant technical issues relating to the design and construction of deep marine foundations including case histories on major bridges, innovative concepts for temporary cofferdams, design and placement of tremie concrete, design and installation of driven piles and drilled shafts for marine structures, deep marine foundations for offshore wind turbines, plus other miscellaneous topics dealing with deep marine foundations including: dredging, underwater geophysical investigation methods, driven-pile sound attenuation methods, ship-impact protection systems for bridges, corrosion of marine tiebacks, and underwater compaction using vibration.

#BCG-2005 The Bridge Beyond: A Narrative Biography
Vantage PressBen C. Gerwick Jr. table of contents
Hard cover, 314 pages, 9.1 x 6.1 x 1.2 inches

This book is a narrative autobiography, written in novel form, with fictitious names. All the events described are true but they have been arranged geographically instead of chronologically. While most of the events actually occurred with the writer being present, a few have been based on first-hand descriptions told to the writer a few days later. The philosophical discussions interspersed through the several chapters have been worded as a fictitious dialogue so as to enable the discussions in the form of questioning rather than dogmatic answers. Hopefully the reader will find answers relevant to his own live and own career.